Resources Part 1: “THE CLERMONT FORUM II: INTERPRETING CLERMONT’S HISTORY THROUGH ART”

Some relevant books, suggested by The Clermont Foundation, in regards to Indians in Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley from the 17th century on.

The Planting of the New Virginia, Warren R Hofstra, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2004, Chap’s 1 and 2

George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry, Ed. by Warren Hofstra, Madison House Publishers, 1998, Chap. “Engaged in Enterprises

Pregnant with Terror: George Washington’s Formative Years among the Indians,  J Frederick Fausz.

The Great Valley Road of Virginia, Ed. by Warren Hofstra and Karl Raitz, University of Virginia Press, 2010, Chap’s 1 and 2

 

A list of potential themes, based on papers generated during the Clermont I Forum:

 

#1: “Out with the Old, in with the New: Rethinking Clermont as a Historical Site”

Written by Kym S Rice

Topics mentioned:

 

Admission/free admission

Actors

American leisure time and pocketbook

Archeological investigations

Celebrity obsessed contemporary culture

Collections: conservations and preservations

Commemorations

Contextual histories

Costumed re-enacting

De-accessioning

Demographic trends

Didactic panels

Economic changes

Educational programming

Family reunions

Fashion

Financial relationships with local/state governments/other entities

Fire protection systems

Gas prices

Genealogical research Internet sites

Ghosts/ghost tours

Heritage tourism

Historic archives

Historic house museums

Historic markets

Historic sites

Historical television shows

HVAC

Institute for Museums and Library Services

Intellectual and fiscal responsibility

Interpretive experience

Kiosks

Local town landmarks

Main streets

Market survey/audience research

Material history

Museums: audience/stakeholders

Museums: public-private relationships

Museums re-conceptualizing themselves

Museums: emphasis on storytelling

Museum: visitors/visitor services, shops and centers

The National Trust

One on one interviews

Organic food movement

Performances

Personal antique collecting

Preservation

Promotion of economic development

Repurposing

Restoration

Room Tableaus

Seed library

Shopping

Social media as a marketing tour

Spanish speaking population

Sustainable agriculture

Walking tours

Workshops for kids and

 

#2: Farming at Clermont during the Age of Grain: The World of Edward McCormick

Written by Kenneth E Koons

Topics mentioned:

 

Agrarian activities

Alma Hibbard

Buying seed

Cattle: draft power, milk, beef

Cattle: purebred Shorthorn cattle

Census years

Cereal grains: oats, rye, buckwheat, barley, hay, clover, and timothy

Chickens

Civil War

Clover honey

Clover for overwintering, clover seed

Commercial flour trade

Corn

Cradlers, rakers, binders and shockers

Crop failures: insects, disease, and bad weather

Cultural identity

Diary

Draft animals: oxen, cattle

Draft power for pulling plows

Environmentally sustainable agriculture

“Farmers without farms”

Flour

“General mixed farming”

Gristmill

Harrows

Hauling

Heirlooms

Hiring labor

Horse drawn laboring

Human muscle

Insurance

Land-holding elite

Late antebellum era

Livestock

Luxury items

Machinery

Manure

Monoculture

The Old Dominion

Plowed and tilled field

Post-Civil War Tidewater Virginia

Pouring and shoveling wheat into bags

Profit

Proprietor

Quintile

Raw material

Repurposing of working landscape

The seasonal cycle of work routines

Seasonal rhythms

Shenandoah Valley

Sheep: purebred fine-wooled Merinos

Sheep: wool and meat

Slave ownership

Slaves’ uneven geographic distribution

Soil fertility

Soil: tilling, pulverizing

Sowing of the wheat crop

Storage

Swine: pig pins, bacon, ham and pork shoulders

Thoroughbred horses, stud services

Threshing

Valley farmers

“Virginia’s age of grain”

Wagons, carts, buggies

Wheat production

Wheat production statistics

 

#3 House of Bondage, Springboard into Freedom: Clermont and Clark County’s Black Community

Written by Melvin Patrick Ely

Topics mentioned:

 

African American History

American Colonization Society

Antebellum economy

Black churches

Black congregations

Black freedom

Black functions

Black migration out

Black owned small business

Black purchasers

Black residential enclaves

Black self-help

Black veterans

Big planters

Bricklaying, carpentry

Carried messages

Civil War

“Conventional” experience

The Courier

Cross-racial invitation

Danger

Diaspora

Economic straights

Enclave

Everyday human interactions

Exodus

Family narratives

Free Afro-Virginia

Free-labor economy

Grain

Harpers Ferry

Heroes

Ideal and reality

Josephine City

Land grants

“Liquidation”

Little black village

Manual training

Moral universe

Mountains

Newspapers

Nomenclature

Oasis

Oppression

Oral tradition

Physical reminders

Planter class

Pigeon Hill

“Political correctness”

Postwar story

Protestants

Purchased lots

Race relations

Racial etiquette

Religious activity

Respectability

Road map

Rubric of black freedom

Slavery

Springboard into Freedom

Subtleties and undercurrents

White emancipationists/colonizationists

Whitewash

Window

Universal human freedom

 

#4: African American Daily Life at Clermont

Written by Karen Hughes White

Topics mentioned:

 

1748 Ordinance

1820 census

1850 Slave Schedule of Clark County

Adjacent tracks of land

American slavery

Archival foundation

Archives and county records

Bad advice

Broken down, bad health

Capture and return of the runaway

Clothes

Daily activities

Daily life

Deed and plat

Domestic cotton for clothes

Dwelling

Dysentery

Family Lines

Ferry crossing

Fond of liquor

Heirs

Hire practices

Indian Slaves

Inheritance of human property

Institution o Slavery in Virginia

Interpretation

Intricate laws

Inventory

Josephine City

Jim Crow era

Land and probate records

Liability for the value of the runaway

Lifelong servitude

Living history interpretations

Medical care for slaves

Messengers

Midwife fees

Ministers

Monetary rewards

 Mulattos

Oats, corn wheat, livestock

Obstacles

Oral histories

Paper trail

Preservation

Property transfers

Real estate

Reconstruction era

Re-enslavement

Religious meeting

Repositories

Research and interpretation of property

Revealing the invisible

Runaway slave advertisements

Searchable database

Segregation

Shoes for an unnamed servant

Slave quarters

Supplement labor

Taxes

Tenant house

Tooth extraction

Transactions

Unnamed child’s finger amputation

Unnamed girl

United States Free, Slave, and Agriculture

Value

Widows

Will

Working farm

 

#5: Wedded to the Land, Nurturing Its People: Women at Clermont

Written by Deborah A Lee

Topics mentioned:

 

McCormick Family

Ancestors

Antique collecting

Bibliography of publications on fish

Biography

Birth control pills

Birthplace

Boarding House

Boarding school, public school, private school

Body, mind, spirit

The burden of care

Burned barns, mills, crops, and commandeered livestock

Bushwackers

Busy roads

“Camp fever”

Childhood memory

Childrearing

Church service

Civilians

The color line

Community garden

Companionship

Confederate sympathies

Cry from a maid upstairs

Cut and sewed uniforms

Decision-making

Desperate winter

Detached apartment once the slave quarters

Dignity

Divorce

Domestic affairs

Educated slaves

Education/school

Egalitarian

Elite women

Enemy combatants

Enemy territory

Energetic barrier

Enslaved cook

Enslaved nurse

Episcopal Bishop of Virginia

Etiquette

Far-flung family

Father’s greatcoat

Financial management

Flesh wound

Fragmented and time-pressured

Frailty

Free hot lunch program

Gender conventions

Gender history

Gender norms

Grandfather’s sword

Guardian accounts

Guardianship

Holistic

Hospitals

Housekeeping

Income

Intimacy

Identity

Josephine Street

Journalism

Journeys by train to Harpers Ferry

Judge

Land

Land holding masculine and feminine qualities

Landscape

Large trees as shelter for generations of ancestors

Law school

Liberty

Lineage

Loss/death

Majestic trees

Managing the household

Massacre

Memoirs and diaries

Mission

Mistress at Clermont

Narratives

New York Ladies Southern Relief Society

Novels and non-fiction

Nurturing

Orphaned children

Paternal uncles

Patriotic duty

Patterns

Philanthropic accomplishments

Pigeon Hill

Pilgrimages to the old home place

Pitched away the flaming wheat

Pitchfork

Place

Polishing floors

Political reconstruction

Postscripts with instructions for enslaved servants

Post-emancipation

Racial divisions

Racial boundary

Refugees

Relationships between black and white women

Renovation: added bathrooms, joining the kitchen with the dining room

Restoration

Retaliation

Scaling Bolivar Heights

Sewing, knitting and laundry

Sexual revolution

Shenandoah Valley

Shining silver

Skills and ways of coping

Slaves

Snowdrop the mare

Southern Appalachian Mountains

Stagecoach

Status

Stepmother

Structural changes in society

Struggling

Suffering and death

Summer vacations

Supplies for the war: coats and winter underwear, sewed garments, knitted socks, bibles, and letters

Surviving soldiers

Torched the wheat stack

Trees, shrubs, produce and flowers

Troops

Tutor

Wartime

Wavelets of the Potomac

Widows

Widowhood after the war

Women’s roles in history “scorched earth” tactics

 

#6 Clermont: Portrait of an Evolved “Virginia” House

Written by Dennis J. Pogue

Topics mentioned:

 

Added kitchen and dining room

Anglo-America

Architectural evidence

Asymmetrical

Attached porches

Attic dormers

Bedchamber

Blocked up

Breezeway

Brick chimneys

Brick nogged walls

Buffer

Chronological data

Chronological developments of construction

Clipped gable roof

Cohesive whole

Construction histories

Contrived steps

Cooking

Critical eye

Cultural artifact

Dendochronological testing

Detached kitchen

Dictates of fashion

Disparate elements

Eating

Erected partitions

Expansion

Fireplace

Floor plan

Glazed

Heart of the family’s house

Historic fabric

House samples

Idiosyncratic solutions

International design models

Kitchen function

Landscapes

Lathed and plastered

Log duplex cabin

Masonry components

Mis-aligned doorways

Moving doorways

Multi-purpose living space

Neo-classical facades

Off-axis

Outbuildings

Parlor/chamber

Passage

Physical investigation

Plastered interior walls

Polite society

Precise dates for phases of construction

Preservation

Preserved palimpsest

Private entrances

Private space

Renovation

Restricted access

Roof shingles

Semi-detached privy

Sleeping

“Social molecule”: structure of social space

Stairway

Stone section

Stratum

Structures formal face

Service buildings

Smokehouse

Timber-framed room

Traditional two-room plan

Unusual placement of the door

Upgrading furnishings

Virginia planter’s elite

Winder stair

Wood coated with clay

 

#7: From Wadlington to William: Clermont as an Evolving Homestead

Written by Maral S Kalbian

Topics mentioned:

 

Additions

Alterations

Appraisal

Archeology

Architects

Archives for wallpaper

Barns, stables

Birthplace

Breezeway

Brick noggin room

Building evolution

Building technology

Buttons

Census

Circulation

Civil War and after

Confederate army surgeon

Configuration

Construction

Data

Dendochronology

“Early dwellings”

East frame

Evolution

Expanded kitchen

Exterior

Fabric

Financial troubles

Fire damage

Free blacks

Freestanding unit

Floor joists

Frontier house

Hall-parlor-plan

Hats

Hauling goods

History of occupants

Horses

Indebtedness to banks

Inventory

Jerkin head roof

Landowners

Ledger with transactions

Masonry

Meat house

Merchant

Modifications

Mother’s death

Nails

New space arrangements

Outbuildings

Ownership

Paint analysis

Perpetuity

Personal stories

Physical investigation

Planed lumbers

Property tax records

Raw material

Realignment of doors and windows

Rebuilding

Remodeling

Removal of alterations

Residents

Salt

Scissors

Shoes

Slave quarters

Slave schedule records

Smoke house

Spatial development

Stockings

Stone section

Stylish center passage plan

Tax records

Tidewater planters

Timbers

Tree-ring dating of multiple phases

Whisky

White male laborers

Wooden staircase

Yeoman farmer

 

#8: Law, Medicine, and Clermont

Written by Peter Wallenstein

Topics Mentioned:

 

1921: the year of the great innovation

Affection and loyalty

Army surgeon

Bacteriological lab

Clark County’s first woman lawyer

Crime victims and defendants

Criminal trials

Developments

Duty

The eradication of mosquitoes

Family lore

Founders of Clark County

Historian

History of family and the home place

Hot lunch program

Hot soup

Josephine City

Journalism

Juvenile judge

Law as family tradition

Law services for low-income families

Law school

Male dominance

Mass migration out of Clark County

Medical apprentice

Medical fraud

Medical permits

Medical training

Medicine

Milk pasteurization

The new deal

Physicians

Pioneers

Planter families

Political turmoil of reconstruction in Virginia

Portal

Post-World War II

Practicing law

Pre-Civil War

Presbyterian country

Pro bono work

Professional identity

Roots

Scots-Irish immigrant

Seismic shift in gender roles

Slaves

The story of law or medicine

Tenure

Uncovered mysteries

Virginia Senate

Virginia State Board of Education

 ‘The Writing of history is sheer agony” –Elizabeth Rust Williams

 

#9: CLERMONT AS MILITARY WITNESS

Written by Joseph W.A. Whitehorne

Topics mentioned:

 

1796 Whisky Rebellion

Absence of centralized military

Administrative chaos

Ambush

Anchorages

Artillery fire

Battlefield

Battle of Antietam

Black political movement

Bounty

Bout of pleurisy

The care of horses and mules

Casualties

Ceremony

Civilian paymaster

Civilian supply contractor

Civil War

Combat action

Commissary

Confusion

Costly success

Cotton

Cuba

Cut telegraph cables

Deployment

Dictator

Discipline

Evacuation

Expedition

Explosive

Farmer

Federal Cavalry Regiments

Fighting front

Firearms and ammunition

Fodder and forage

Foragers

France

Fraud

French and Indian Wars

Garrison

Gas mask

Gas shells

General Robert E Lee

Germany

Global growth

Global influence

Global stage

Guam

Guerilla activity

Harvest

Horse infirmaries

Individual crisis

Inflation

Injury

Jaded horses

Japan

Letters home

Livestock

Local militia

Local sympathizers

Long range planning

Market prices

Milling and manufacturing facilities

Militia marching

Modern shifts

Modern steel navy

Mules

Nepotism

New nation’s bureaucracy

Nicaragua

Oath of allegiance

Old wooden ships

Order

Outbreak of the Revolution

Outdated maps

Passing military events

Patrolling rotations

Pensions

Photography

Prayer

Pre-empted

Railroads

Railway cars

Ration storage facilities

Raw and finished goods

Refuge

Remains

Route 7

Sea duty

Seaplane accident

Shell fragments

Skirmish

Small bodies of troops

Snickers Gap

Spanish

Stockpile supplies, material and livestock

Temporary advantage

Threat of the sea

Tobacco

Troop supplies

Victory

Vouchers

Wartime

Water supply

Withdrawal

Woodrow Wilson administration

Wounds

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